Understanding LIBOR (London Interbank Offered Rate)

In the midst of the Great Recession, you probably heard a lot about LIBOR rising—which was a sign that the global credit markets were seizing up because banks were afraid to loan to each other because they didn’t know if the other banks they were loaning to were going to exist next week, let along be able to pay back those loans. But what on earth is LIBOR?

[VIDEO] Understanding LIBOR (London Interbank Offered Rate)

London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR)

The financial markets are full of acronyms, and one of my favorites is LIBOR. The acronym LIBOR stands for London InterBank Offered Rate. This is the average interest rate that banks charge when they make short-term unsecured loans to other banks.

Unlike the Federal Funds Rate or the Discount Rate, which are both set by the U.S. Federal Reserve, nobody “sets” the LIBOR rate. Instead, the British Bankers’ Association (BBA) surveys 16 different major banks and asks them what rate they are charging other banks to borrow money. Once they have compiled the results, they take an approach similar to the judges who score Olympic diving take—they throw out the four high scores (or rates) and throw out the four low scores and then find the average of the remaining eight scores. Here’s how it works.

Imagine the BBA goes out, surveys its 16 banks and ends up with the following interest rates being charged by each bank:

– Bank #1 — 3.87%
– Bank #2 — 3.85%
– Bank #3 — 3.81%
– Bank #4 — 3.76%
– Bank #5 — 3.75%
– Bank #6 — 3.74%
– Bank #7 — 3.71%
– Bank #8 — 3.69%
– Bank #9 — 3.67%
– Bank #10 — 3.66%
– Bank #11 — 3.63%
– Bank #12 — 3.62%
– Bank #13 — 3.60%
– Bank #14 — 3.57%
– Bank #15 — 3.53%
– Bank #16 — 3.48%

In this case, the BBA would throw out the top four rates (Banks 1–4) and the bottom four rates (Banks 13–16) and then average the rates from the remaining banks (Banks 5–12) to come up with a LIBOR rate of 3.68 percent.

The BBA conducts these surveys and then calculates the LIBOR rate once a day at about 11 am London time.

What Does LIBOR Tell Us?

When LIBOR is rising, it tells us one of two things: 1) it tells us that interest rates in general are rising and thus LIBOR is also rising, and/or 2) it tells us that lending banks believe the banks they are lending to have a higher risk of defaulting on the loan so the lending bank has to charge a higher interest rate to offset this risk.

When LIBOR is falling, it tells us one of two things: 1) it tells us that interest rates in general are falling and thus LIBOR is also falling, and/or 2) it tells us that lending banks believe the banks they are lending to have a lower risk of defaulting on the loan so the lending bank does not have to charge a higher interest rate to offset this risk.
You can also compare LIBOR to other indicators to conduct spread analyses.

Disclosures

This article is produced by Learning Markets, LLC. The materials presented are being provided to you for educational purposes only. The content was created and is being presented by employees or representatives of Learning Markets, LLC. The information presented or discussed is not a recommendation or an offer of, or solicitation of an offer by Learning Markets or its affiliates to buy, sell or hold any security or other financial product or an endorsement or affirmation of any specific investment strategy. You are fully responsible for your investment decisions. Your choice to engage in a particular investment or investment strategy should be based solely on your own research and evaluation of the risks involved, your financial circumstances and your investment objectives. Learning Markets and its affiliates are not offering or providing, and will not offer or provide, any advice, opinion or recommendation of the suitability, value or profitability of any particular investment or investment strategy.

Any specific securities, or types of securities, used as examples are for demonstration purposes only. None of the information provided should be considered a recommendation or solicitation to invest in, or liquidate, a particular security or type of security.

Investors should consider the investment objectives, charges, expense, and unique risk profile of an Exchange Traded Fund (ETF) carefully before investing. Leveraged and Inverse ETFs may not be suitable for all investors and may increase exposure to volatility through the use of leverage, short sales of securities, derivatives and other complex investment strategies. These funds’ performance will likely be significantly different than their benchmark over periods of more than one day, and their performance over time may in fact trend opposite of their benchmark. Investors should monitor these holdings, consistent with their strategies, as frequently as daily. A prospectus contains this and other information about the ETF and should be obtained from the issuer. The prospectus should be read carefully before investing.

Investors should consider the investment objectives, risks, charges, and expenses of mutual fund carefully before investing. Mutual funds are subject to market fluctuation including the potential for loss of principal. A prospectus contains this and other information about the fund and is available from the issuer. The prospectus should be read carefully before investing.

Options involve risk and are not suitable for all investors. Detailed information on the risks associated with options can be found by downloading the Characteristics and Risks of Standardized Options and Supplements (PDF) from The Options Clearing Corporation, or by calling the Options Clearing Corporation at 1-888-OPTIONS.